Operation & Maintenance of Ordnance in Cold Weather FM 9 FM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF ORDNANCE MATERIEL IN COLD WEATHER. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FROM USAPA. Recently. Technical Manual TM (FM ) Operations and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Cold Weather July [United States Government US Army].
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In the absence of buildings or maintenance tents, tarpaulins may be used to create overhead shelter and windbreaks. The preferred cold weather batteries are lithium-based, but precautions must be taken in their storage and disposal. This naturally reduces the efficiency of personnel when operating and maintaining materiel. Maintenance, supply, and engineer units may require augmentation. Vehicular canvas covers with plastic windows may break due to a combination of cold and vibration.
A framework of poles erected around a vehicle can support the tarpaulin. Even shop maintenance cannot be completed at normal speed. This precaution ensures the protection provided by the lubricating oils is adequate.
Tires become rigid in cold, causing flat spots on parts that come in contact with the ground during shutdown.
When preparing for sustained operations in remote, cold regions, logistical planners must understand the following environmental characteristics:. This accelerates heater failure by carbonizing the wick, igniter, burner, related burner components, or heat exchanger.
It then quickly loses its elasticity and becomes brittle. Every precaution must be taken to maintain soldier safety and ensure equipment is functioning properly. Complete winterization, diligent maintenance, and well-trained crews are the keys to reducing the adverse effects of cold weather.
It is intended to provide an overview of the special and unique difficulties encountered in cold weather operations. Cold conditions tend to increase security problems because soldiers want to keep warm and sleep indoors.
When properly maintained, the nickel-cadmium NICAD batteries used in some Army equipment such as range finders, some night vision sights, and ground surveillance radars are very effective low-temperature power sources. The time from initiating quick heat to achieving reliable starting temperatures can vary from a few minutes to one hour. When employed in a cold region, a force actually faces two enemies–the tactical enemy and the environment that also aggressively attacks and can destroy equipment and men.
Deployment of tactical vehicles from a hot to a cold region requires a change in electrolyte for maximum battery effectiveness.
Remember to use antifreeze in coolant systems. As stated in Field Manual FMThe Army9207 is the Army’s fundamental purpose to win wars through land force dominance regardless of location or climate.
One of the greatest hindrances rm successful military operations in a winter environment is the effect of cold on batteries. Rapid body cooling caused by heat transfer to the equipment or ground may result in cold injury. For example, if a NICAD battery is continually called upon to deliver an average of only 25 percent of its capacity before it is recharged, it 9-20 eventually “memorize” this fact and become incapable of supplying the remaining 70 percent capacity. Soldiers must check battery charges using hydrometers and testers.
Vehicle recovery in cold, snowy conditions can be extremely dangerous. Vast distances, major climatic or terrain obstacles to air or ground movement, or a combination of these factors often separate combat service support CSS elements from supported forces.
Maintenance fmm many components requires careful and precise servicing. Proper and satisfactory servicing is difficult unless personnel are working in reasonably comfortable temperatures. Power requirements for starting an engine increase when the battery is least capable of delivering power.
Operation & Maintenance of Ordnance in Cold Weather FM 9 207
Besides operating equipment, soldiers must learn to protect themselves against climatic factors by dressing properly and improvising protective measures and shelters. Emplacement of artillery pieces for fire missions is very difficult. Its primary purpose is to familiarize operators and crews with the special procedures and techniques for working 9207 sub-zero temperatures. Present personnel heaters have pot-type vaporizing burners.
FM TABLE OF CONTENTS
Listed below are several requirements that affect maintenance directly and require planning and preparation before a cold weather operation:. An operator can externally heat gear boxes, drive trains, transmissions, and oil pans on vehicles prior to operations.
Understanding the specific impacts can assist a unit in planning measures to counter these effects. Since most US units are stationed in temperate or tropical climates, soldiers generally lack adequate training or experience in cold weather operations and maintenance. When planning for battle, leaders must realistically evaluate the impact that physical factors have on operations. Quick heat is a technique that allows quick warmup and reliable starting when vehicle temperatures drop as mf as the existing ambient temperature.
When performing maintenance under arctic winter conditions, a box or pan should be used to hold small parts. Use a snatch block whenever possible to reduce the load on the winch. Exercise care when towing cold-soaked vehicles. US Army equipment is among the best in the world for use in cold climates.
Antifreeze materials specified for protection of liquid-cooling systems are listed in Appendix A. Economic order quantities EOQ and ammunition required supply rates RSR should be 9-270 on a seasonal basis rather than on the -9207 day demand criterion.